Tuesday, May 05, 2009

Daniel 11

Chapter 11

1 Also I, in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strenthen him.

2 And now will I (the angel) shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia besides Darius, in whose reign this prophecy is dated,…

The Darius mentioned in verse one is probably Cyrus the Great’s uncle while the one in verse two may be Cyrus himself. He was half Mede. His mother probably named him Darius while his father named him Cyrus, a Persian name. It is not unusual for a king to go by more than one name.

The three kings are probably Cyrus, Artaxasta or Artaxerxes (who the Greeks called Greeks Cambyses), and Ahasuerus who was called Darius son of Hystaspes.

Rulers of Persia

1. Cyrus II the Great, established the Persian Empire and ruled it from 550–529. (This is when Darius the Mede, his uncle, ruled Babylon under Cyrus)

2. Cambyses II, his son, ruled 530–522.

Smerdis, his alleged brother, ruled 522. (Let’s not count him. He only ruled for a short time- less than a year- and was not a legitimate ruler.)

3. Darius I the Great, son of Hystaspes, ruled 521–486. Demanded Tribute of dirt and water from Greece.

4. Xerxes I, his son, ruled 486–465. (He was excedingly rich.)

5. Artaxerxes I Longimanus, his son, ruled 464–424. (This is the one who paid for the rebuilding of the temple)

6. Xerxes II, his son, ruled 424.

7. Sogdianus, his half-brother, ruled 424–423.

8. Darius II Nothus, his half-brother and rival, ruled 423–404.

9. Artaxerxes II Memnon, his son, ruled 404–358

10. Artaxerxes III Ochus, his son, ruled 358–338.

11. Artaxerxes IV Arses, his son, ruled 338–336.

12. Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336–330. (This is the one who killed Alexander’s father)

13. Artaxerxes V Bessus, an usurper who murdered Darius and continued the resistance against Alexander the Great from 330–329. (Alexander killed him)

…and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

The fourth king is Xerxes. Greek authors of the time tell us he was very rich. He had an army of at least 800,000 men and was thus very strong. He attacked Greece. This was a famous war, which Xerxes lost badly. He stopped the building of the Temple at Jerusalem.

About thirty years after the first return from captivity, Darius II revived the building of the temple, admitting that God had punished his predecessors for stopping it. (Ezra 6:7.)

3 And a mighty king (Alexander the Great) shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

Alexander has some of the greatest conquests in all of history. He took on the kings of Persia and ruled over many countries. He was a total dictator.

4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

Alexander died at the height of his strength at the age of 32. His kingdom was divided into four parts, but not to his offspring. Arideus, his brother, was made king in Macedonia; Olympias, Alexander's mother, killed him, and poisoned Alexander's two sons, Hercules and Alexander. Thus was his family destroyed by its own hands.

5 And the king of the south (Egypt) shall be strong, and one of his princes (General Seleucid); and he (Seleucid) shall be strong above him (Egyptian king), shall be stronger than the king, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.

The kingdom of the south was ruled by one of Alexander’s captains, Ptolemaeus Lagus, whose successors were called the Lagidae. The countries that at first belonged to Ptolemy are Egypt, Phoenicia, Arabia, Libya, Ethiopia, and smaller tributaries. The kingdom of Syria (called the kingdom of the north in these prophecies) was set up by Seleucus Nicanor, or The Conqueror; he was one of Ptolomy’s princes or generals, and became stronger than Ptolemy, and had the largest territory of all. He was the most powerful of all Alexander's successors. He had no fewer than seven-two countries under him. Both these kingdoms gave Judah a great deal of trouble. Ptolemy, soon after he gained Egypt, invaded Judea, and took Jerusalem on a Sabbath while pretending to make a friendly visit.

6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.

About seventy years after Alexander's death, the King of Egypt and the Seleucidae of Syria pretended to try to unite. Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, married his daughter Bernice to Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, who already had a wife called Laodice. Bernice came to the king of Syria, to make an agreement, but it didn’t last: All that came from that unhappy marriage between her and Antiochus that was supposed to bring a coalition between the northern and southern crowns, was trouble. Antiochus divorced Bernice and married his former wife Laodice again, who soon poisoned him, had Bernice and her son-to-be murdered, and set up her own son by Antiochus, who was called Seleucus Callinicus, to be king.

7 But out of a branch of her (Bernice's) roots shall one stand up in his (Antiochus's) estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:

8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.

9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.

Ptolemaeus Euergetes, the son and successor of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (and brother to Bernice), came with an army against Seleucus Callinicus (son of Laodice and Antiochus Theos), king of Syria, to avenge his sister's quarrel, and won. He carried away both people and riches into Egypt. This Ptolemy reigned forty-six years; if his problems at home had not called him away, Ptolemy would probably have conquered all of Syria. But he was forced to go home to Egypt to keep control there

10 But his (Seleucus Callinicus of Syria) sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.

Seleucus Callinicus, who died miserably, left two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus; these are his sons that “shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces,” to recover what their father had lost. But Seleucus, the elder, was weak, and unable to rule his army, and was poisoned by his friends. He reigned only two years. His brother Antiochus succeeded him, who reigned thirty-seven years, and was called The Great. That is why the angel speaks of sons at first but then goes on with the account of one son, who was only fifteen years old when he began to reign. He certainly “came, and overflowed, and over-ran,” and restored what his father lost.

11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he (Ptolemaeus Philopater,) shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his (Ptolemaeus Philopater) hand.

Ptolemaeus Philopater won at first. He was moved with indignation at the indignities done by Antiochus the Great and went to fight with him. He brought a vast army into the field of 70,000 foot soldiers, 5000 horsemen, and seventy-three elephants. And the other “multitude” (the army of Antiochus, consisting of 62,000 foot soldiers, 6000 horsemen, and 102 elephants) was given into his hand.

12 And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.

Ptolemaeus grew very insolent. His heart was lifted up. He went into the temple of God at Jerusalem, and, in defiance of the law, entered the most holy place. This made God mad at him. Though he defeated a large army, it wasn’t enough to protect him from God’s anger.

13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south:

The king of the north, Antiochus the Great, returned with a greater army than he had before. Ptolemaeus Epiphanes had succeeded Ptolemaeus Philopater- his father- when he was a child, which gave advantage to Antiochus the Great.

In this expedition Antiochus had some powerful allies. Philip of Macedon was in league with him against the king of Egypt, and Scopas his general, whom he sent into Syria. Antiochus routed Ptolemaeus and destroyed a great part of his army. The Jews willingly helped Antiochus besiege Ptolemaeus's garrisons.

15 So the king of the north (Antiochus) shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.

16 But he (Antiochus) that cometh against him (the king of the south) shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him (Antiochus): and he (Antiochus) shall stand in the glorious land (Isarel), which by his hand shall be consumed.

Antiochus the Great surprised Egypt’s strong-holds and all the power of the king of Egypt, couldn’t withstand him. He also conquered the land of Judea. Israel is “The Glorius Land” and Antiochus flatened it. He fed his army with all the produce of the land.

The land of Judea lay between Egypt and Syria, so in all the wars between the two, Israel suffered.

Antiochus took advantage of the youth of Ptolemy Epiphanes and many Israelites sided with him.

17 He (Antiochus) shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones (Israelites) with him; thus shall he do: and he (The King of Egypt) shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his (her father’s) side, neither be for him.

The King of Egypt gave Antiochus one of the early Cleopatras (there were around ten, total, in history. The famous one was the last one.) as a wife in hopes it would cause him problems, but she ended up siding with her husband instead of her father so it didn’t work.

18 After this shall he (Antiochus) turn his face unto the isles of the sea and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.

Antiochus started a war with Rome- at this time still a republic, though growing in power. He took many of the islands about the Hellespont-Rhodes, Samos, Delos, etc. But the two Scipios (Roman generals) were sent with an army against him. Hannibal was with Antiochus and advised him to invade Italy and loot it as he had done; but Antiochus did not take his advice. Scipio (“prince” means “ruler” and applies to generals as well as royalty) joined battle with him, and gave him a total defeat, though Antiochus had 70,000 men and the Romans only 30,000. Scipio caused the reproach offered by Antiochus to cease.

19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.

When Antiochus lost to the Romans, and was forced to give up all he had in Europe, and had a very heavy tax laid on him, he went home. He plundered a temple of Jupiter to get the money to pay his taxes. This so angered his own people that they killed him. And so he was “not to be found.”

20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.

Seleucus Philopater, the elder son of Antiochus the Great, was an oppressor of his own subjects. He imposed very high taxes. When he was told he would lose his friends because of it, he said he knew no better friend he had then money. He also tried to rob the temple at Jerusalem. He was poisoned by Heliodorus, one of his own servants/generals, when he had reigned only twelve years, and done nothing remarkable.

Then we begin the prophecy of the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the little horn spoken of before (ch. 8:9) who was a sworn enemy to the Jewish religion, and a bitter persecutor of those who followed it.

21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

Antiochus IV called himself Epiphanes (The Illustrious). He was a horrid person. Non-Jewish writers describe him to be an odd-humored man, rude and boisterous, base and sordid. He would sometimes sneak out of the court into the city, and roam with any low class company he could find, while disguised. He had the most unaccountable whims, so that some took him to be silly, others to be crazy. So others called him Epimanes (the madman). He had been held a hostage at Rome for a long time to buy the faithfulness of his father when the Romans had conquered him. It was agreed that, when the other hostages were exchanged, he should continue a prisoner-at-large.

22 And with the arms of a flood shall the enemies be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.

23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.

Antiochus IV arranged to have his elder brother's son, Demetrius, be sent a hostage to Rome, in exchange for himself. Since his elder brother was killed by his general, Heliodorus (verse 20), Antiochus IV took the kingdom. He came to the throne peaceably pretending to reign for his nephew. The Syrians didn’t give him the throne nor did he take it in war. Two neighboring princes, Eumenes and Attalus, helped him gain popularity with the people. He flattered others until they all prefered him over his nephew. Then he took care of his brother’s murderer Heliodorus, who tried to rebel against him with a large army. Those that opposed Antiochus were destroyed, even his nephew, the rightful heir (“prince of the covenant”).

24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.

Antiochus gave the common people lots of money; shared the loot from war to make them like hiim. No other Syrian king had done anything like this. But while he was doing this, he was putting into place what he needed to to hold the throne after he quit being generous. Once he had the kingdom firmly in his control, he began ruling with an iron hand.

25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.

He went to war with Ptolemaeus Philometer, king of Egypt. Ptolemy fought back with a very large army;

26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.

Ptolemy, though he has such a vast army, won’t be able to defeat him. Antiochus's army slaughtered the Egyptian army. Ptolemy’s counselors, who ate at his own table, betrayed him. They were bribed by Antiochus.

27 And both of these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.

After the battle, these two kings met to make a peace treaty, but neither one intended to keep any part of the treaty. God appointed a time for the war to resume.

28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.

He looted Jerusalem (and in fact, all of Israel) on the way home. He enjoyed torturing them.

29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.

Again, Antiochus attaked Egypt. He had brought home a great deal of loot from his last war there. This made him very eager to attack again, two years later. In the eighth year of his reign, he attaked but this time he didn’t succeed, as the two former attacks did.

30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.

“The ships of Chittim” are the Roman navy with ambassadors from the Roman Senate. Ptolemaeus Philometer, king of Egypt, made an alliance with the Romans and received their help against Antiochus. The Syrians had besieged Ptolemy and his mother, a Cleopatra, in the city of Alexandria. The Roman senate sent an embassy to Antiochus and commanded him to stop the siege. He asked for time to consider it. Popilius, one of the ambassadors, drew a circle around him, and told him he had to give a positive answer before he came out of the circle. Fearing the Roman power, he was forced to give orders for the retreat of his army out of Egypt.

His was mad. In his return from Egypt, he always stopped by Israel and tormented them, spoiling the city and temple. But the most terrible storm was in his return from Egypt after meeting with Rome. Because he couldn’t win in Egypt, he took his revenge out on the Jews, who hadn’t provoked him, but who had provoked God. That was why He allowed it.

31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.

He already had a hatred of the Jews' religion. He hated the law of Moses and the worship of the true God, and was irritated at the privileges of the Jewish nation and the promises made to them by God.

Antiochus not only destroyed the city and ransacked the temple, he placed an idol in it and sacraficed pigs.

32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.

33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.

Antiochus was helped by some apostate Jews who spied for him. They also introduced the customs of the heathen. 1 Macabees 1:11 to 15 records that those back-sliden Jews “made themselves uncircumcised and forsook the holy covenant.” 2 Macabees 4:9 tells of Jason, the brother of Onias the high priest, who, under Antiochus’ command, set up a school at Jerusalem, for the training up of the children in the fashions of the heathen (much like our public schools do today). 2 Macabees 4:23 and other places tell of Menelaus who helped Antiochus into Jerusalem. The Maccabees tells us a lot about the mischief done to the Jews by these traitors. Antiochus used them all he could to get the people to turn their backs on God. He flatterd them and used them as decoys to draw others away.

Antiochus had not only his own army brought from egypt, but many who had turned their backs on God. They helped him take away the golden alter and candlesticks and anything else of value. Antiochus went into the most holy temple, Menelaus the traitor guiding him.

Antiochus had decided to make all the Jews convert to his religion. He took away the daily sacrifice. Then he set up the Abomination of Desolation upon the altar (An idol- 1 Macabees 1:54), and called The Temple the Temple Of Jupiter Olympius, (2 Macabees 6:2). Many converted. He persecuted those who wouldn’t.

The “exploits” mention are the things done by those who resisted Antiochus. Even Antiochus became ashamed of what he was doing.

One of the principla scribes, Eleazar, had pig meat forced into his mouth. He spit it out knowing he would be tortured to death. May chose to be put to death instead of denying God. They were tortured, “not accepting deliverance,” as it says in Hebrews 11:35. “Exploits” also refers to the military courage and achievements of Judas Maccabaeus and others in opposition to Antiochus.

We are told in verse 33 that these people who would not deny God would instruct many. They did. They made it their business to show others what they had learned themselves of the difference between truth and falsehood, good and evil.

34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.

They fell by the cruelty of Antiochus- were tortured and put to death- by his rage. Though they were intelligent and useful and serviceable to others, Antiochus showed no mercy. They were tortured (fell) for some time. The Maccabees tell us of Antiochus's rage and barbarous treatment of the believing Jews; how many he slew in wars and murdered in cold blood. Women were put to death for having their children circumcised, and their babies were hanged, among many other atrocities (1 Macabees 1:60, 61).

35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.

But why did God allow this? How can this be reconciled with the justice and goodness of God? It makes more sense if we consider what it was that God was aiming for. Even the best among us have flaws that need to be mended. Some of those who understood the Word were tortured and killed in order to purify them and the church as a whole. This was God’s way of weaning them from the world, and awakening them to greater seriousness and diligence in religion. Their sufferings for righteousness' sake tried and purged the nation of the Jews of their falsness, convinced them of the truth and power of the religion which these understanding men died for. It prepared them for the coming of the Messiah just a century and a half later. The blood of these martyrs was the seed of the church.

But they weren’t completely run down. They were given a little help. Judas Maccabaeus, and his brothers, and a few others made headway against the tyrant. They pulled down the idolatrous altars, circumcised the children that they found uncircumcised, recovered the law out of the hand of the Gentiles, (1 Macabees 2:45, etc.) It is also foretold that “many shall cleave to them with flatteries.” Some jews joined the Maccabees when they saw them beginning to win, though they were not religious. They pretended friendship either to betray them or in hopes of “ridding their coat tails” so to speak. But the fiery trial separated between the true believers and the pretenders.

Though these troubles may continue a long time, they had an appointed end fixed in the plans of God.

36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.

This was fulfilled when Antiochus forbade sacrifices to be offered in God's temple, and ordered the Sabbaths to be profaned, and the sanctuary to be polluted (1 Macabees 1:45).

Antiochus wrote to his own kingdom that every one should leave the gods they had worshipped, and worship the ones he had ordered. No one had ever done such a thing before. The heathens agreed because, though they liked their gods, they didn’t like them enough to suffer for them. And, anyway, an idol is an idol. He wasn’t really asking them to make that big of a change.

Antiochus was so proud that he thought he was above mortal man, that he could command the waves of the sea, and reach to the stars of heaven, as his insolence and haughtiness are expressed in 2 Macabees 9:8, 10.

36 till he had run his length, and filled up the measure of his iniquity; for that which is determined shall be done, and nothing more, nothing short.

37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

People have a desire to worship the gods of their ancestorsas much as they desire sex. It is unnatural to change gods. (“for, if you search through the isles of Chittim, you will not find an instance of a nation that has changed its gods,” Jeremiah 2:10, 11). Yet Antiochus made laws to abolish the religion of his country, and brought in the idols of the Greeks. And though his predecessors had honored the God of Israel, and given great gifts to the temple at Jerusalem (2 Macabees 3:2, 3), he offered the greatest indignities to God and his temple.

His not “regarding the desire of women” may mean his barbarous cruelty as he spared neither women nor children. Or it may mean he had unnatural lusts or his contmpt of everything norml men honor. Antiochus fulfilled them all.

38 But in his estate shall he honor the god of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

His ancesters worshiped the gods of pleasure, Apollo and Diana. Instead he worshiped the god of war and force, Jupiter Olympius, known amount the Phoenicians as Baal-Semen. He set up an image of Jupiter in the temple at Jerusalem and offered gold, silver, and jewels to it.

39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain

Antiochus commited Jerusalem to Jupiter instead of the true God and brought the idol a great deal of glory. He put the priests of Jupiter in charge of the country. They used the land for their own profit. He and they worshipped money- as most heathens do.

40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

This scripture had to have been fulfilled before the invention of the combustible engine. Armies have not used chariots and horsemen since and would not return to their use now.

41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.

42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.

43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.

He had yet another war with Egypt. The Romans had kept him from invading Ptolemy, but now the king of Egypt attacks him and tries to take some of his territories. Antiochus, the king of the north, fights back with chariots, and horses, and many ships, a great army. In this flying march many countries are overthrown by him, and he enters the land of Israel again. He destroys many of the neighboring countries, though some escape such as Edom and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. He didn’t tax these people because they had helped him conquer Israel. He stripped Egypt so bare that he impoverished it. This was his fourth and final war with Egypt. He was prtending to help the younger brother of Ptolemaeus Philometer against his brother. We don’t read of any great slaughters at this time, but he thouroughly plundered everyone. He evidently threw a big party with all this money. He also got the Lybians and Ethiopians to serve him and help him against Egypt.

44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.

45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

This predicts Antiochus’ fall, just like Danilel 8:25. He received word from the north-east parts of his kingdom that the king of Parthia was invading. This obliged him to drop what he was doing and go take care of the Persians and Parthians that were revolting from him. This irratated him because he had meant to totally ruin andj destroy the Jews. We read in 1 Mac. 3:27, etc., that he was in a a great rage when he heard of the successes of Judas Maccabaeus, and he gave orders to destroy Jerusalem. Then he pitched tents of his court between the Great Sea and the Dead Sea. He set up his royal pavilion at Emmaus near Jerusalem to show that though he wasn’t there, he had given full power to his officers to fight the Jews.

God cut him off in the hieght of his strength. No one could stop Him. This was also foretold in chapter 8:25 (“He shall be broken without hand”), where we looked at his miserable end.

Nothing is prophesied about the kings after Antiochus. He was the most evil enemy of the church. In fact, Rome soon became a major player in the area causing a weakening of Syria.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Thank you so much for commenting! I love to talk to my readers.

I do ask that there be no anonymous commenters, though. If I am brave enough to put my name on this blog, you should be too:-)

Please keep it civil. Remember we are all human and make mistakes, and that since we can't see each other's faces or hear each other's tone of voice, it is very hard to get the emotion in what we are saying each other. Use lots of emoticons! :-) And show grace and love to each other.